Can Dehydration Happen in Cold Weather?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dehydration can happen just as easily in colder weather as it can during the summer months. According to the Mayo Clinic, you can become dehydrated in the cold from sweating, breathing, the drying power of the winter wind, and increased urine production. Yet, fewer people recognize the signs of dehydration in the winter, so it may be even more of a risk during winter months.

Why is Hydration So Important?

Drinking fluids is crucial to staying healthy and maintaining the function of every system in your body, including your heart, brain, and muscles.  Fluids carry nutrients to your cells, flush bacteria from your bladder, and prevent constipation. Hydration in the cold weather is essential to providing fuel and energy to body parts to help facilitate heat production. Although most doctors do not recommend a one size fits all for water consumption, most people are fine with drinking to thirst (around 30-60 oz. per day). Water-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables, are also a good source of water. Proper hydration is especially important in cold weather as dehydration negatively affects the body's resistance to cold weather, increasing the chance for cold weather injuries. 

Signs of Dehydration

Recognizing the signs of dehydration is critical in order to correct the lack of water in the body. Mild to moderate dehydration is often characterized by dry mouth, sleepiness, thirst, decreased urine output, dry skin, headache, weakness, constipation, and dizziness or lightheadedness. Symptoms of severe dehydration include: extreme thirst, extreme fussiness or sleepiness in infants, very dry mouth and skin, little to no urine output, dark urine, sunken eyes, low blood pressure, rapid heart rate, rapid breathing, stomach cramps or vomiting, no tears when crying, and fever.

What to do if You Are Dehydrated

If you suspect that you are severely dehydrated, it is important to go to the emergency room immediately. If you are mildly to moderately dehydrated, start the rehydration process with water or coconut water. Warm liquids can be consumed more readily in a cold environment than cold beverages. If snow is present, don’t eat it, as this will use up body heat and it might be contaminated.  Don’t drink too much too quickly, as this can overwhelm your stomach and your kidneys. Eat foods that are rich in electrolytes, such as kiwis, bananas, nut butters, and yogurt.

If electrolyte-rich foods aren’t available, aim for a sports drink to help restore lost minerals. Try to avoid drinks that act as diuretics, such as coffee and alcohol. These types of drinks will increase urine production and slow the re-hydration process.

Prevention is Best! How to Prevent Dehydration

You can prevent dehydration from becoming severe by monitoring symptoms closely and hydrating at the first signs of dehydration. For those who are sick, hydrating at the first sign of diarrhea, vomiting, or fever is crucial. For those who are exercising (especially outside), drinking plenty of water before, during, and after exercise, should help prevent dehydration. People who exercise outside in humid weather are at higher risk for dehydration, e.g. endurance athletes and those in the military.

Extra weight from supplies and gear can accelerate dehydration. Wearing the right clothing can help reduce water loss through sweat. Light weight, loose clothing aides in heat loss and sweat evaporation. Layers are also a good idea in the winter months.  This allows you to adjust your clothing to match the temperature and your activity level on an as-needed basis.

Prevention is key when it comes to dehydration. By fueling up with the right foods and drinks, and wearing the right clothing, you can dramatically reduce your risk for dehydration.

 

 

Superfood Series: Part 4

Chia Seeds:  Small, but Mighty

What’s not to love about chia seeds? They are unprocessed, whole grain, and chock-full of nutrients.  Chia seeds are jam-packed with protein, fiber, and minerals. Before we dive into the specifics, let’s take a look at their overall nutritional content. 

 

 

 

Healthy Weight.  Chia seeds are not the magic solution for weight loss that some companies would like you to believe, but their high fiber and protein content make them a viable addition to any healthy weight loss or maintenance plan. Thanks to their high fiber content, chia seeds can absorb 10-12 times their weight.  Their gel like presence in your stomach will help you feel fuller, longer and reduce the chance of over-eating. Additionally, chia seeds contain high quality protein that consists of all 9 essential amino acids (amino acids that cannot be synthesized on their own and must be obtained through food) that will keep hunger at bay and energy levels consistent. 

Healthy Heart.  Chia seeds are a great source of heart healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).  They are a particularly good source of Omega-3 fatty acids, which play an important role in sustaining health, specifically in blood clotting and inflammation. PUFAs can also help reduce bad cholesterol levels which can lower your risk of heart disease and stroke and possibly type II diabetes. 

Digestion.  Fiber aids in digestion and chia seeds are an excellent source of fiber.  At 10 grams per ounce (about 2 tablespoons), they are 40% fiber by weight.  Fiber is not fully digested by the body, so it cleans out the digestive tract as it passes through.  Fiber also helps increase satiety (the feeling of being satisfied), which can aid in weight loss and healthy weight maintenance plans. 

Strong bones.  Chia seeds are high in many critical bone nutrients and minerals including calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. These three minerals account for 98% of the body’s mineral content by weight.  Although, deficiencies in phosphorus and magnesium are rare in the typical American diet, calcium deficiency is more common.  As we age, calcium absorption and retention decreases in our bones.  Including chia seeds in your diet may help offset this natural loss in calcium. 

Antioxidants have been shown to help fight off everything from heart disease to cancer.  Some of the most abundant antioxidants in chia seeds (quercetin, kaempferol,  myricetin, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid) are associated with health benefits such as boosted energy, endurance, and fitness of the brain and muscles; protection against chronic disease such as lung cancer, asthma, and type II diabetes;  and inflammation prevention.      

Athletic performance.  Folklore says that Aztecs and Mayans carb-loaded with chia seeds before an athletic event, much in the same way we do with sport drinks before a sporting event. We’re thinking they were on to something.  In one study, researchers compared athletic performance of athletes who drank Gatorade to athletes who drank a mixture of half-Gatorade and half-chia seeds.  The results indicated no difference in performance between the two groups, suggesting that chia seeds may serve as a possible healthy alternative to highly processed, sugar-laden sport drinks. Furthermore, the high calcium and magnesium content in chia seeds makes them a good source of electrolytes which helps prevent hydration and restore electrolyte balance lost during heavy exercise.

Diabetes.  The unique combination of soluble and insoluble fiber (10 out of 12 carbohydrates are from fiber) in chia seeds causes a slow and steady rise in blood sugar which is favorable for people with diabetes.  A few clinical studies have demonstrated this favorable effect.  The results of one study indicated that including 37 grams (about 2.5 tablespoons) of chia seeds per day for 12 weeks reduced blood sugar levels.  Hint* Substituting chia seeds for bread crumbs and other high glycemic load foods can be a helpful place to start.    

Versatility.  There are many ways to eat chia seeds. In addition to their long shelf life (thanks to antioxidants), chia seeds are so versatile that you can add them to almost anything.  Eat them alone if you’re in a hurry or add them to water or milk to create a thick, gelatinous pudding.  Other people like to add them to salads, sandwiches, and soups.  Check out these other ideas if you’re curious

Resources: 

http://www.eatright.org/Public/content.aspx?id=6442472548

http://authoritynutrition.com/11-proven-health-benefits-of-chia-seeds/

http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/3643

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3518271/

http://www.healthychildren.org/English/healthy-living/nutrition/Pages/Minerals-Calcium-Phosphorus-and-Magnesium.aspx

http://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/omega-3-fatty-acids-fish-oil-alpha-linolenic-acid/evidence/hrb-20059372

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21183832

http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/HealthyEating/Polyunsaturated-Fats_UCM_301461_Article.jsp

http://www.chialive.com.au/Chia-Antioxidants.html

Superfood Series: Part 2


7 Reasons why non-fat Greek Yogurt is a superfood all-star: 

  1. Weight Control.  Non-fat Greek yogurt is a power house for lean protein.  One serving (1 cup) of plain non-fat Greek yogurt has 130 calories, 0g fat, 6g sugar (naturally occurring in all dairy), and a whopping 22g of protein. Nutritionally speaking, that is half the sugar and 2x the protein found in plain nonfat regular yogurt, which will help you feel fuller, longer. This is the Holy Grail for those who are looking for healthy snacks while on the path to weight loss or healthy weight maintenance. 
  2. Diabetes.  There are so many foods and snacks that are not ideal for those with insulin resistance or diabetes. Greek yogurt is certainly not one of them.  Greek yogurt is absorbed slowly into the blood stream, which allows for a slow and steady release of energy.  Greek yogurt undergoes a straining process which removes the liquid whey.  Subsequently, half of the sugar is also removed, but the protein remains intact.  It’s because of this process that Greek yogurt is thicker and creamier than regular yogurt.   
  3. Digestion.  Greek yogurt is a great source of probiotics.  What’s so great about probiotics?  They are tiny little microorganisms that help improve digestion and protect your gut from harmful bacteria.  Research has shown that probiotics can help treat Irritable Bowel Syndrome, diarrhea, Crohn’s disease, and other gastrointestinal disorders.  They can also help promote regular bowel movements.
  4. Blood Pressure.  In one of the largest studies of its kind, research by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) indicated that foods rich in potassium, calcium, magnesium, and protein (i.e. Greek Yogurt) can help reduce elevated blood pressure.  Bonus:  Greek yogurt has about half the amount of sodium of regular yogurt. Greek yogurt is a clear choice for those with high blood pressure. 
  5. Lactose Intolerant.  Contrary to popular belief, it not only acceptable, but health experts recommend that people with mild lactose intolerance include small amounts of dairy in their diet. The key is to choose dairy with low amounts of lactose.  Cue the Greek yogurt.  Part of the straining process that transforms regular yogurt into Greek yogurt subsequently removes about 95% of the lactose.  This is why lactose intolerant people can often digest Greek yogurt comfortably. 
  6. Athletes. The same high protein, calcium, magnesium, and potassium content that contributes to Greek yogurt’s ability to lower blood pressure, also makes it a great choice for athletes.  All the protein and electrolytes present in Greek yogurt can help athletes replenish stores that may have been lost during intense exercise. Not to mention the calcium in Greek yogurt helps keep bones strong and less prone to injury.
  7. Versatility.  One of the best things about Greek yogurt is that in addition to being eaten alone, it can be substituted for just about anything!  It can be blended in with smoothies or mixed with fruit and frozen to make a healthier ice cream.  Greek yogurt doesn’t curdle at a high temperature so it can also be used in place of sour cream, mayo, vegetable oil and cream cheese in dessert recipes and casseroles. 

Please note*When we say Greek yogurt we are referring to the plain, non-fat variety. 

Sports Drinks

Sport Drink_infographic_WITH LOGO

 

What to look for: natural sources of electrolytes like bananas & coconut water 

What to stay away from: sports drinks all together unless intensely exercising

Sports drinks are intended to maintain hydration and restore electrolyte balance lost during heavy exercise. Electrolytes are maintained in body fluids and needed for nerve impulses and muscle contractions. Electrolytes like sodium and potassium are lost through heavy sweat and must be replaced to keep the concentrations in your body fluids constant. But, buyer beware.  On average, sport drinks contain 20 grams of sugar in one 12 oz. serving.  That’s over 13 teaspoons of sugar in the average 32 ounce sport drink bottle. All of the added calories from sugar can seriously interfere with weight loss/maintenance efforts in addition to sending blood sugar levels on a roller-coaster ride of peaks and valleys. Therefore, it is important to know when sports drinks are appropriate and useful and when they are not necessary.

Sport drinks are ideally used by athletes engaged in high‐intensity workouts lasting 60 minutes or more. They are not recommended for routine consumption.  However, factors such as duration of exercise and weather conditions can affect the need for an athlete to supplement carbohydrate and electrolyte loss with a sport drink.  It is especially important to be mindful of electrolyte loss when exercising in high temperatures.

Most people exercising at a moderate-vigorous rate can stay hydrated and energized by eating a healthy meal or snack and drinking enough water prior to and during their workout. Check out the list below of electrolytes and common food sources for each.

Potassium-bananas, kiwis, green leafy vegetables, sweet potatoes

Magnesium- green leafy vegetables, whole grains, nut butters, pumpkin

Calcium- milk, yogurt, black eyed peas

Chloride- olives, tomatoes, celery

Sodium- The typical American diet is quite high in sodium, so dietary need to supplement is rare. However, nut butters are a healthy source of sodium if needed.